Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
It is a multidisciplinary field of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines..
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice.
They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. The most talked-about models of recent years have been those relating air temperature to emissions of carbon dioxide.
These models predict an upward trend in the surface temperature record, as well as a more rapid increase in temperature at higher altitudes..
Rain is a form of precipitation, other forms of which include snow, sleet, hail, and dew.
Rain plays a major role in the hydrologic cycle in which moisture from the oceans evaporates, condenses into clouds, precipitates back to earth, and eventually returns to the ocean via streams and rivers to repeat the cycle again..
Weather is a term that encompasses phenomena in the atmosphere of a planet.
The term is normally taken to mean the activity of these phenomena over short periods of time, usually no more than a few days.
Average atmospheric conditions over significantly longer periods are known as climate.
Usage of the two terms often overlaps and the physical concepts underlying them are closely related.
On Earth, regularly occurring weather phenomena include such things as wind, cloud, rain, snow, fog and dust storms.
Less common events include natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes and ice storms.
Almost all familiar weather phenomena occur in the troposphere (the lower part of the atmosphere).
Weather does occur in the stratosphere and does affect weather lower down in the troposphere, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. The Earth’s atmosphere is a chaotic system, so small changes to one part can have large effects elsewhere.
This makes it very difficult to accurately predict weather changes more than a few days in advance, though weather forecasters are continually working to extend this limit through the scientific study of weather, meteorology..
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