An industrial robot is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes.The field of industrial robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot).
Typical applications of industrial robots include welding, painting, ironing, assembly, pick and place, palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.
The most commonly used robot configurations for industrial automation, include articulated robots, SCARA robots and gantry robots.
In the context of general robotics, most types of industrial robots would fall into the category of robot arms..
Robot calibration is the process of identifying the real geometrical parameters in the kinematic structure of an industrial robot, i.e., the relative position and orientation of links and joints in the robot.
A calibrated robot has a higher absolute positioning accuracy than an uncalibrated one, i.e., the real position of the robot end effector corresponds better to the position calculated from the mathematical model of the robot.
Absolute positioning accuracy is particularly releveant in connection with robot exchangability and off-line programming of precision applications.
Besides the calibration of the robot, the calibration of its tools and the workpieces it works with can minimize occurring inaccuracies and improve process security..
Robotic surgery is the use of robots in performing surgery.
Three major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and unmanned surgery.
Major potential advantages of robotic surgery are precision and miniaturization.
Further advantages are articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification.
Some surgical robots are autonomous, and they are not always under the control of a surgeon.
They are only sometimes used as tools to extend the surgical skills of a trained surgeon..
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10-9 metres).
More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the still largely theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots.
Nanorobots (nanobots or nanoids) are typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.
As no artificial non-biological nanorobots have so far been created, they remain a hypothetical concept at this time.
Another definition sometimes used is a robot which allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution.
Following this definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation.
Also, macroscale robots or microrobots which can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots..
A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body.
In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs, although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up.
Some humanoid robots may also have a ‘face’, with ‘eyes’ and ‘mouth’.
Androids are humanoid robots built to resemble a male human, and Gynoids are humanoid robots built to resemble a human female..
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